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Ubuntu / Debian: Apache2 SSL einrichten (HTTPS Webservice)

Dieses Thema im Forum "Root / Vserver Server Sicherheit" wurde erstellt von giftstaub, 9. November 2011.

Status des Themas:
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  1. giftstaub

    giftstaubChef Mod

    28. Januar 2010
    Punkte für Erfolge:
    Der einfachere Weg als SSL-Page ist SSH, wer es dennoch einrichten möchte bzw. benötigt hier ein kleines HowTo.

    HTTP verschlüsseln - SSL Page, HTTPS einrichten (Portforwarding 443):

    1. OpenSSL installieren:

    apt-get install openssl

    2. SSL deaktivieren:

    a2dismod ssl

    3. Anpassen Apache2 Config:

    Nun wechslen wir ins Apacheverzeichnis:

    cd /etc/apache2/sites-available

    Wir fertigen eine Kopie der vorhandenen default-ssl Konfiguration an, die ist dann unsere default-ssl-backup als Standart Konfiguration ist.
    cp -f /etc/apache2/sites-available/default-ssl /etc/apache2/sites-available/default-ssl-backup

    Nun öffnen wir die default-ssl-backup Konfiguration, und passen für das neue IPC 11.5 den Pfad an:

    nano /etc/apache2/sites-available/default-ssl-backup

    Der Inhalt sollte dann so aussehen:

    <IfModule mod_ssl.c>
    <VirtualHost _default_:443>
        ServerAdmin webmaster@localhost
        DocumentRoot /var/www
        <Directory />
            Options FollowSymLinks
            AllowOverride None
        <Directory /var/www/>
            Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews
            AllowOverride [COLOR=#ff0000]All[/COLOR]
            Order allow,deny
            allow from all
        ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /usr/lib/cgi-bin/
        <Directory "/usr/lib/cgi-bin">
            AllowOverride None
            Options +ExecCGI -MultiViews +SymLinksIfOwnerMatch
            Order allow,deny
            Allow from all
        ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/error.log
        # Possible values include: debug, info, notice, warn, error, crit,
        # alert, emerg.
        LogLevel warn
        CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/ssl_access.log combined
        #   SSL Engine Switch:
        #   Enable/Disable SSL for this virtual host.
        SSLEngine on
        #   A self-signed (snakeoil) certificate can be created by installing
        #   the ssl-cert package. See
        #   /usr/share/doc/apache2.2-common/README.Debian.gz for more info.
        #   If both key and certificate are stored in the same file, only the
        #   SSLCertificateFile directive is needed.[COLOR=#ff0000]
        [/COLOR][COLOR=#000000]SSLCertificateFile /etc/ssl/certs/ssl-cert-snakeoil.pem[/COLOR][COLOR=#ff0000]
        [/COLOR][COLOR=#000000]SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/ssl/private/ssl-cert-snakeoil.key[/COLOR]
        #   Server Certificate Chain:
        #   Point SSLCertificateChainFile at a file containing the
        #   concatenation of PEM encoded CA certificates which form the
        #   certificate chain for the server certificate. Alternatively
        #   the referenced file can be the same as SSLCertificateFile
        #   when the CA certificates are directly appended to the server
        #   certificate for convinience.
        #SSLCertificateChainFile /etc/apache2/ssl.crt/server-ca.crt
        #   Certificate Authority (CA):
        #   Set the CA certificate verification path where to find CA
        #   certificates for client authentication or alternatively one
        #   huge file containing all of them (file must be PEM encoded)
        #   Note: Inside SSLCACertificatePath you need hash symlinks
        #         to point to the certificate files. Use the provided
        #         Makefile to update the hash symlinks after changes.
        #SSLCACertificatePath /etc/ssl/certs/
        #SSLCACertificateFile /etc/apache2/ssl.crt/ca-bundle.crt
        #   Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL):
        #   Set the CA revocation path where to find CA CRLs for client
        #   authentication or alternatively one huge file containing all
        #   of them (file must be PEM encoded)
        #   Note: Inside SSLCARevocationPath you need hash symlinks
        #         to point to the certificate files. Use the provided
        #         Makefile to update the hash symlinks after changes.
        #SSLCARevocationPath /etc/apache2/ssl.crl/
        #SSLCARevocationFile /etc/apache2/ssl.crl/ca-bundle.crl
        #   Client Authentication (Type):
        #   Client certificate verification type and depth.  Types are
        #   none, optional, require and optional_no_ca.  Depth is a
        #   number which specifies how deeply to verify the certificate
        #   issuer chain before deciding the certificate is not valid.
        #SSLVerifyClient require
        #SSLVerifyDepth  10
        #   Access Control:
        #   With SSLRequire you can do per-directory access control based
        #   on arbitrary complex boolean expressions containing server
        #   variable checks and other lookup directives.  The syntax is a
        #   mixture between C and Perl.  See the mod_ssl documentation
        #   for more details.
        #<Location />
        #SSLRequire (    %{SSL_CIPHER} !~ m/^(EXP|NULL)/ \
        #            and %{SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_O} eq "Snake Oil, Ltd." \
        #            and %{SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_OU} in {"Staff", "CA", "Dev"} \
        #            and %{TIME_WDAY} >= 1 and %{TIME_WDAY} <= 5 \
        #            and %{TIME_HOUR} >= 8 and %{TIME_HOUR} <= 20       ) \
        #           or %{REMOTE_ADDR} =~ m/^192\.76\.162\.[0-9]+$/
        #   SSL Engine Options:
        #   Set various options for the SSL engine.
        #   o FakeBasicAuth:
        #     Translate the client X.509 into a Basic Authorisation.  This means that
        #     the standard Auth/DBMAuth methods can be used for access control.  The
        #     user name is the `one line' version of the client's X.509 certificate.
        #     Note that no password is obtained from the user. Every entry in the user
        #     file needs this password: `xxj31ZMTZzkVA'.
        #   o ExportCertData:
        #     This exports two additional environment variables: SSL_CLIENT_CERT and
        #     SSL_SERVER_CERT. These contain the PEM-encoded certificates of the
        #     server (always existing) and the client (only existing when client
        #     authentication is used). This can be used to import the certificates
        #     into CGI scripts.
        #   o StdEnvVars:
        #     This exports the standard SSL/TLS related `SSL_*' environment variables.
        #     Per default this exportation is switched off for performance reasons,
        #     because the extraction step is an expensive operation and is usually
        #     useless for serving static content. So one usually enables the
        #     exportation for CGI and SSI requests only.
        #   o StrictRequire:
        #     This denies access when "SSLRequireSSL" or "SSLRequire" applied even
        #     under a "Satisfy any" situation, i.e. when it applies access is denied
        #     and no other module can change it.
        #   o OptRenegotiate:
        #     This enables optimized SSL connection renegotiation handling when SSL
        #     directives are used in per-directory context.
        #SSLOptions +FakeBasicAuth +ExportCertData +StrictRequire
        <FilesMatch "\.(cgi|shtml|phtml|php)$">
            SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
        <Directory /usr/lib/cgi-bin>
            SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
        #   SSL Protocol Adjustments:
        #   The safe and default but still SSL/TLS standard compliant shutdown
        #   approach is that mod_ssl sends the close notify alert but doesn't wait for
        #   the close notify alert from client. When you need a different shutdown
        #   approach you can use one of the following variables:
        #   o ssl-unclean-shutdown:
        #     This forces an unclean shutdown when the connection is closed, i.e. no
        #     SSL close notify alert is send or allowed to received.  This violates
        #     the SSL/TLS standard but is needed for some brain-dead browsers. Use
        #     this when you receive I/O errors because of the standard approach where
        #     mod_ssl sends the close notify alert.
        #   o ssl-accurate-shutdown:
        #     This forces an accurate shutdown when the connection is closed, i.e. a
        #     SSL close notify alert is send and mod_ssl waits for the close notify
        #     alert of the client. This is 100% SSL/TLS standard compliant, but in
        #     practice often causes hanging connections with brain-dead browsers. Use
        #     this only for browsers where you know that their SSL implementation
        #     works correctly.
        #   Notice: Most problems of broken clients are also related to the HTTP
        #   keep-alive facility, so you usually additionally want to disable
        #   keep-alive for those clients, too. Use variable "nokeepalive" for this.
        #   Similarly, one has to force some clients to use HTTP/1.0 to workaround
        #   their broken HTTP/1.1 implementation. Use variables "downgrade-1.0" and
        #   "force-response-1.0" for this.
        BrowserMatch "MSIE [2-6]" \
            nokeepalive ssl-unclean-shutdown \
            downgrade-1.0 force-response-1.0
        # MSIE 7 and newer should be able to use keepalive
        BrowserMatch "MSIE [17-9]" ssl-unclean-shutdown

    Als Nächstes entfernen wir die nicht mehr benötigten Module mit:

    a2dissite 000-default
    a2dissite default-ssl

    Nun Laden wir das gerade erstellte default-ssl-backup Module mit:

    a2ensite default-ssl-backup

    SSL aktivieren:

    a2enmod ssl

    Nun öffnen wir die ports.conf und passen den Port von 80 auf 443 an

    nano /etc/apache2/ports.conf

    Der Inhalt sollte dann so aussehen:

    # If you just change the port or add more ports here, you will likely also
    # have to change the VirtualHost statement in
    # /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/000-default
    # This is also true if you have upgraded from before 2.2.9-3 (i.e. from
    # Debian etch). See /usr/share/doc/apache2.2-common/NEWS.Debian.gz and
    # README.Debian.gz
    NameVirtualHost [B][COLOR=#000000]*[/COLOR][/B]:[COLOR=#ff0000]443[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=#ff0000][B]#[/B][/COLOR][COLOR=#000000][B]Listen 80[/B][/COLOR]
    <IfModule mod_ssl.c>
        # If you add NameVirtualHost *:443 here, you will also have to change
        # the VirtualHost statement in /etc/apache2/sites-available/default-ssl
        # to <VirtualHost *:443>
        # Server Name Indication for SSL named virtual hosts is currently not
        # supported by MSIE on Windows XP.
       [COLOR=#000000] Listen 443[/COLOR]
    <IfModule mod_gnutls.c>
    #    Listen 443

    Jetzt Starten wir Apache2 Neu und schauen ob alles ohne Fehler Restartet wird.

    Apache2 Restart:

    /etc/init.d/apache2 force-reload

    Nun geben wir im Browser folgendes ein:


    Jetzt sollte das so wie auf dem Bild aussehen dann habt ihr alles Richtig gemacht.

    Den Anhang 46077 betrachten

    Ein Aufruf mit http://IP-Des_Servers ist nicht Möglich und sollte wie auf dem Bild mit einer Fehlermeldung beantwortet werden.

    Den Anhang 46078 betrachten

    Da es sich um ein selbst erstelltes, und kein offiziell ausgestelltes (von offiz. Zertifizierungsstelle) handelt, muss das Zertifikat dann im Browser importiert/installiert werden. Damit es als gültig anerkannt wird MUSS der CN (Common Name) übereinstimmen ! Wenn dann alles stimmt und im Browser importiert ist, darf beim Aufruf von "https://servername.dyndns.com" keine Zertifikatswarnung mehr erscheinen. Wenn erfolgreich eingerichtet, kann Forwarding zu Tcp80 geschlossen, und Tcp443 geöffnet werden, die Page ist dann nur mehr per HTTPS erreichbar !

    Viel Spaß damit :emoticon-0105-wink:

    Ein HowTo wie man die SSL-Zertifikate erneuert oder Neue SSL-Zertifikate mit längerer Laufzeit erstellt findet ihr hier:

    Dieser Link ist nur für Mitglieder!!! Jetzt kostenlos Registrieren ?

    Zuletzt bearbeitet: 28. September 2012
    ironsky, frisiaf, hb-man und 13 anderen gefällt das.
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