Habe dieses mal gefunden und trägt vielleicht zur Aufklärung bei und wer der französichen Sprache mächtig ist, kann sich ja hier mal durchlesen http://www.telesatellite.com/gateway.asp?s=forum.satmag.fr yes canal channels are encrypted using more than one coding simultaneously. The viacess coding is recent with canal and the related viacess cards are for the people who are using their own tuner-decoder and not the official canal plus decoder. Some french people indeed prefer to buy their own decoders because canal plus decoders have too many limitations (in terms of number of programs but also number of satellites for exemple)... and canal rents their official decoders 8 € per month...A high amount for a very old fashioned product. As far as I know, merlin is not active yet (except for a limited list of channels which they broadcast twice: one with merlin, the other without) but it could be added in the future to the viacess process to create a bridge between the decoder card en the decoder itself in order to prevent cards sharing at consumer level. One card would work in one decoder only. From what I have understood, when merlin will be added in the future (if it is one day...no one really knows for sure) , this will mean a new version of viacess will be used by canal, it's called viacess 3.0.